General Concepts of ICT

Posted 04/07/2020 | Views 1.153

ICT: Information and Communications Technology - or technologies.

API: An application programming interface is a particular set of rules and specifications that software programs can follow to communicate with each other. It serves as an interface between different software programs and facilitates their interaction, similar to the way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.

W3C: World Wide Web Consortium is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).

CRUD: It stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.

God object: In object-oriented programming, a god object is an object that knows too much or does too much. The god object is an example of an anti-pattern.



Cross-platform: Ability of a programming language (such as Java) that enables programmers to develop software for several competing platforms by writing a program only once. Cross-platform software can run on most or all systems with little or no modification. Also called multi-platform or platform independent.



CGI: Common Gateway Interface is a specification for transferring information between a World Wide Web server and a CGI program. A CGI program is any program designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specification. The program could be written in any programming language, including C, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic.


DOM: Document Object Model is an application programming interface (API) for valid HTML and well-formed XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and manipulated. (more detail)

SCM: Source Code Management is a software tool used by teams of programmers to manage source code. SCMs are used to track revisions in software. Each revision is given a timestamp and includes the name of the person who is responsible for the change. Various revisions may be compared, stored, and merged with other revisions.

REPL: Read Eval Print Loop represents a computer environment like a window console or Unix/Linux shell where a command is entered and system responds with an output in interactive mode.

HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol

HTTPS: HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure.

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol.

URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. URIs are a standard for identifying documents using a short string of numbers, letters, and symbols. URLs, URNs, and URCs are all types of URI.


URL: Uniform Resource Locator contains information about how to fetch a resource from its location. For example:

  • file:///home/user/file.txt 
  • tel:1-888-555-5555 
  • /other/link.html (A relative URL, only useful in the context of another URL) 

URLs always start with a protocol (http) and usually contain information such as the network host name ( and often a document path (/foo/mypage.html). URLs may have query parameters and fragment identifiers.

URN: Uniform Resource Name identifies a resource by a unique and persistent name, but doesn't necessarily tell you how to locate it on the internet. It usually starts with the prefix urn:
For example:

  • urn:isbn:0451450523 to identify a book by its ISBN number. 
  • urn:uuid:6e8bc430-9c3a-11d9-9669-0800200c9a66 a globally unique identifier 
  • urn:publishing:book - An XML namespace that identifies the document as a type of book. 

URNs can identify ideas and concepts. They are not restricted to identifying documents. When a URN does represent a document, it can be translated into a URL by a "resolver". The document can then be downloaded from the URL.

URC: Uniform Resource Citation points to meta data about a document rather than to the document itself. An example of a URC is one that points to the HTML source code of a page like: view-source:

Data URI: rather than locating it on the internet, or naming it, data can be placed directly into a URI. An example would be data:,Hello%20World.

Credit from: StackOverflow

CORS: ​Cross-Origin Resource Sharing is a standard for accessing web resources on different domains.

Octet: An octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.

LAMP: Linux - Apache - MySQL - PHP, Perl, Python

MEAN: MongoDB - ExpressJS - AngularJS - NodeJS

ACID: In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties of database transactions. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.

BASE: Basic Availability, Soft-state, Eventual consistency

SLF4J: The Simple Logging Facade for Java (SLF4J) serves as a simple facade or abstraction for various logging frameworks (e.g. java.util.logging, logback, log4j) allowing the end user to plug in the desired logging framework at deployment time.

JDBC: Java Database Connectivity, which is a standard Java API for database-independent connectivity between the Java programming language and a wide range of databases.


JPA: The Java Persistence API is a Java specification for accessing, persisting, and managing data between Java objects / classes and a relational database. Its an abstraction of ORM frameworks like Hibernate, Eclipselink, etc... Hibernate is an implementation of JPA. JPA allows you to flexibly change the underlying ORM framework.

ORM: Object-Relational Mapping is a technique that lets you query and manipulate data from a database using an object-oriented paradigm. It is a mechanism that makes it possible to address, access and manipulate objects without having to consider how those objects relate to their data sources.

SDLC: The Systems Development Life Cycle is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.

Pure Function: A pure function is a function where the return value is only determined by its input values, without observable side effects.


MOOC: A Massive Open Online Course is a free Web-based distance learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students.

WYSIWYG: is an acronym for "What You See IWhat You Get". In computing, a WYSIWYG editor is a system in which content (text and graphics) can be edited in a form closely resembling its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product, such as a printed document, web page, or slide presentation.



OSSRH: Open Source Software Repository Hosting provide repository hosting service for open source project binaries. Example: Sonatype

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